Category: International Agreements

In this section you will find a range of treaties and protocols that regulate nuclear weapons under international law.


Antarctic Treaty

The treaty declares the Anarctic continent a demilitarized zone as well as a zone free from nuclear weapons. The Anarctic treaty was signed on 1 December 1959 by twelve states whose scientists had been active in and around Antarctica 1957-58. Among the signatories there were seven countries with territorial claims. The treaty entered into force on 23 June 1961 and has since been acceded to by many states and there are now 47 parties to the treaty.
Antarctic Treaty (treaty text, pdf).

Treaty of Semipalatinsk

The Central Asian Nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty or the treaty of Semipalatinsk was signed by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan on 8 September 2006. The treaty was ratified by all signatory states and came into force on 21 March 2009.
Treaty of Semipalatinsk (treaty text, pdf).

Treaty of Pelindaba

The African Nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty or the treaty of Pelindaba was opened for signature on 11 April 1996. The treaty came into force on 15 July 2009 and has been ratified by 30 of 51 signatory states.
Treaty of Pelindaba (treaty text, pdf).

Treaty of Bangkok

The Southeast Asia Nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty or the Bangkok treaty was signed on 15 December 1995. The treaty came into force on 28 March 1997 and has been ratified by all ten signatory states.
Treaty of Bangkok (treaty text, pdf).

Treaty of Rarotonga

The South Pacific Nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty was opened for signature on August 6 1985. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 and has been ratified by all 13 signatory states.
Treaty of Rarotonga (treaty text, pdf).

Treaty of Tlatelolco

The treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean or the treaty Tlatelolco was the first treaty to declare a populated area a nuclear-weapon-free zone. The treaty was opened for signature on 14 February 1967, entered into force on 22 April 1968 and has been ratified by all 33 signatory states.
Treaty of Tlatelolco (treaty text, pdf).

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT)

The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT) was a bilateral strategic arms reductions treaty which was signed on 24 May 2002 and came into force on 1 June 2003. It was due to expire in December 2012, but was superseded by the New START Treaty in February 2011.
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (treaty text, pdf).

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I)

The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was bilateral agreement between the USA and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. The treaty was signed on 31 July 1991 and entered into force on 5 December 1994. START I expired in December 2009 and was replaced by New START.
START I  (treaty text, external).