Category: International Agreements

In this section you will find a range of treaties and protocols that regulate nuclear weapons under international law.


Biological Weapons Convention

The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) prohibits the use of biological weapons by anyone, anywhere, any time for any purpose. It also prohibits all relevant scientific and technological development of biological weapons, now and in the future. Biological Weapons Convention.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC) adopted the Rome Statute in 1998, establishing four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. Article 8 of the statute—which defines war crimes— may refer to chemical and biological weapons (CBW) implicitly, but it is unclear whether all chemical weapons are included, and whether biological weapons are included at all. Subparagraph (2)(b)(xvii) bans the use of ‘poison or poisoned weapons’; And Subparagraph (2)(b)(xviii) prohibit of the Use of   ”Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and all analogous liquids, materials or devices”. Rome Statute of the ICC.

Chemical Weapons Convention

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) was adopted by the Conference of Disarmament in Geneva on 3 September 1992, concerning the prohibition of development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and on their destruction. Chemical Weapons Convention (1993).

1925 Geneva Protocol

The 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons in war. The Protocol was drawn up and signed at a conference, which was held in Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations from 4 May to 17 June 1925, and it entered into force on 8 February 1928. 1925 Geneva Protocol.

Biological Weapons Convention

The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) prohibits the use of biological weapons by anyone, anywhere, any time for any purpose. It also prohibits all relevant scientific and technological development of biological weapons, now and in the future. Biological Weapons Convention (treaty text, pdf).

Moon Treaty

The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, also known as the Moon Treaty or Moon Agreement. The treaty was opened for signature on 18 December 1979 and came into force on 11 July 1984.
Moon Treaty (treaty text, pdf).

Seabed Treaty

Treaty on the prohibition of the emplacement of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction on the sea-bed and the ocean floor and in the subsoil thereof. The treaty was opened for signature on 11 February 1971 and entered into force on 18 May 1972.
Seabed Treaty (treaty text, pdf).

Outer Space Treaty

Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. The treaty was opened for signature on 27 January 1967 and entered into force on 10 October 1967.
Outer Space Treaty (treaty text, pdf).