Category: Resources

This section provides information on key issues in a nutshell, legal documents, maps, articles, reports & publications related to biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons.


Biological and chemical warfare under Additional Protocol I & II

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I and II), 8 June 1977, has established some provisions relating to biological and chemical warfare.

The ICRC additional protocols I (article 54) and II (article 14) prohibits toxic contamination of water-supply installations and foodstuffs. Further, article 51 (4) b. and c., labels biological and chemical weapons as unlawful, as they are inherently indiscriminate weapons. Click here (external) to access website and read the full text of the Protocols.

The missile technology control regime

Although not legally binding, the Missile Technology Control Regime serves as an informal political understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology, for the delivery of all types of weapons of mass destruction. Click here (external) to access website.

The Australia Group

The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which coordinates export controls of chemical and biological weapons-related materials and technology, in order for the par participants to fulfill their obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological and Toxin Weapons. Click here (external) to access website.

Nuclear Weapons under International Law – An Overview

ILPI’s Senior Partner Dr. Gro Nystuen together with Dr. Stuart Casey-Maslen and Annie Bersagel, edited a book titled Nuclear Weapons Under International Law which was published at Cambridge University Press in September 2014

Edited by Gro NystuenStuart Casey-Maslen, & Annie Bersagel

ICRC position on the use of toxic chemicals as weapons for law enforcement

06.02.2013 Statement by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

The ICRC states that the use of toxic chemicals as weapons for law enforcement purposes should be limited exclusively to riot control agents, as are defined in the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. Click here (external) to access website.

Chemical weapons: a summary report of characteristics and effects

Dana A. Shea. Congressional Research Service. September 13, 2013. The report highlights the potential for terrorist use of chemical agents, and provides a description of different types of chemical weapons and toxic chemicals, their availability, treatment and detection. Click here (external) to access the report.

The 2011 BWC Review Conference

The Parties to the BWC met in Geneva 5-22 December 2011 for the seventh Review Conference. Click here (external) to access the home page of the 2011 Review Conference. Final document 2011 BWC Review Conference (pdf).

The 2006 BWC Review Conference

The Parties to the BWC met in Geneva 3 November to 8 December 2006 for the sixt Review Conference. Click here (external) to access the home page of the 2006 Review Conference. Final document 2006 BWC Review Conference (pdf).